Smart Citizens Cyber Resilience

  • This project aims to enhance the resilience of citizens and civil society stakeholders in smart digital futures, both in Macau and around the world.


    Information and communication technologies are part of the critical infrastructure that supports all areas of our lives, from health and transportation to entertainment and leisure services. 

    Cyber resilience enhances the ability of individuals, communities, cities, and countries to achieve the desired level of functioning in the face of adverse cyber incidents – which can emanate from technical or socio-technical, as well as natural or man-made sources. Resilience as a goal is articulated in Sustainable Development Goal 11 “Sustainable cities and communities”, the New Urban Agenda, as well as in the Sendai Framework.

    Despite the potential impacts of adverse cyber events on individuals and civil society stakeholders, cyber resilience has traditionally been considered from the perspective of governments, private sector companies, and organizations. It is typically considered from the single domain of technical systems, hence towards ensuring the resilience of critical information infrastructure, operational technologies, and information and communication technologies infrastructure.

    This perspective fails to take into consideration the multi-dimensionality of cyber resilience and also neglects the role and the responsibilities of the civil society stakeholders towards co-production of cyber resilience. It also fails to recognize cyber resilience as an attribute of the whole system and as requiring a whole-of-society approach.


    National Cybersecurity Strategies Review

    A review of the National Cybersecurity Strategies (NCS) of countries in the Asia and Pacific region to investigate the extent to which they foreground and mainstream whole-of-society cyber resilience in the strategies.


    SMART Citizen Cyber Resilience Ontology (SC2RO)
    Modelling the citizen cyber resilience domain knowledge to identify the resources (assets), vulnerabilities, threats, reponses (countermeasures), and harms (impacts). The ontology identifies socio-technical cyber threats and maps countermeasures along the four resilience phases of prepare, absorb, recover, and adapt.



    Mamello Thinyane, Debora Christine, Christy Un




    • Thinyane, M & Christine, D (2020). Invited Panelist “Smart Citizen Cyber Resilience in Asia and Pacific”, Building Digital Resilience for COVID-19 Response and Recovery webinar series by IEEE Standards Association and eWorldwide Group, 14th – 16th April 2020
    • Thinyane, M & Christine, D (2020). Invited Panelist “Co-production of Cyber Resilience Beyond COVID-19”, Building Digital Resilience for COVID-19 Response and Recovery webinar series by IEEE Standards Association and eWorldwide Group, 9th July 2020



    This work is supported by the Science and Technology Development Fund of Macau (FDCT) under Grant No. 0016/2019/A.